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Learning more about

throughout the U.S.A.

History has faithfully known, Native Indians –

Faithful Husbands & Wives, . . .

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Young men of notable character and

distinction, . . .

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Young women of beauty, strength

and gracefulness, . . .

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Teenagers of much learning and

intricate fashion, . . .

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Young Braves of a long and

rich heritage, . . .

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Bouncing babies upon the knee, . . .

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Beloved Native Grandfathers &

Grandmothers, and . . .

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Native Indian Chiefs . . .

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. . . all belonging to many ancient

Native Nations and Tribes

who have long inhabited –

and yet dwell upon –

the land

now called the

United States of America.

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As America's Independence Day is 

"Celebrated"

at Mount Rushmore on July 4, 2021 

Let's all reflect on the long History of . . .

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Our Nation's Indigenous Citizens

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Learn more on the following web pages:

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Important Historical

Questions?

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By Bosonic dressing - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=7072024

Below Hyperlinks Courtesy, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

Did you ever wonder about

the prior name[s] of

Earth’s land masses – specifically,

the  continent entirely  within

the Northern Hemisphere

and almost all within the

 Western Hemisphere?

In other words, did you ever

wonder what “North America”

was called long before being

named the . . .

 “North American Continent?”

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Abya Yala.

Mother Earth, also called,

Pachamama.

“The indigenous woman in this picture is

representing the Pachamama.

AbyaYala, or America, is

being caressed by the Pachamama.”

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“Here [Above] is a depicted version of the American continent.

Notice the native animals of Southamerica such as the Condor,

the Huemul, the Jaguar, the turtle. The staple food of the

entire American continent (north and south) is the

"choclo" (or corn in English) which is interwoven

with the Mother Earth's hair. You can also see a big anaconda

from the amazons coming out of her, many native trees and

freshwater fish.  In the center of all, most importantly, is

the imposing Andes mountain, which directs the flow

of the rivers to both sides of the continent, east and

west, to the Atlantic and the

Pacific Oceans respectively. The source of life

of the entire continent is Mother Earth or Pachamama.”

I m p o r t a n t   N o t e :

Can we really know for certain what the North American

Continent was called by the ancient Native Indians? 

Read following quote by John L. Hare,

PhD American Studies, additional

training with National Park Service:

“Honestly, the question can’t be answered.  There were

some pretty large “language groups” in which

people from different tribes and villages

could understand each other for the

most part.

 

They had names for locations in their

areas but that doesn't mean they could

conceptualize a continent, let alone name it.”

Never-the-less, Indigenous Peoples of the land naturally conceptualized

“Mother Earth”

as the source of life . . . and cherished Earth and its life-giving nourishment.

Many Thanks John L. Hare, PhD.  I think that students

of all ages can agree that ancient Native Indians

had their own names and references

to what is now known as the

North American Continent.

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It’s time to learn “Native”

in America . . .

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For thousands of years before

European contact, present-day

“United States of America”

was widely inhabited by 

indigenous, “Native Indians.”

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Start Learning More:

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Courtesy,

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Reminder . . .

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An in-depth study of

the history of the

“United States of America”

is important.  As equally important

is the history of those ancient,

indigenous “Native Indians”

who have long inhabited

what is now known

as the . . .

“North American Continent.”

– EPACHA Foundation –

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Remembering the Past.

Looking to the Future.

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Native Indian Ball Players

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“Lacrosse may be the sport of the affluent today, but it

is rooted in Native American culture. The game

was played by Eastern Woodlands Native

Americans and Plains Indians. Teams

today  have  smaller  numbers,

but original versions had

hundreds of players taking to the field.

 

Native Americans took part in rituals before

each game, including painted their bodies. Players

also had to place a wager before the games began, and the

winners would take the prizes. In some cases, woman

and children might be put up as part of a wager.”

Above Quote Courtesy,

Ojibwe Music Board

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“The Ojibwe relied on passing down information

through oral tradition, but they also used birch scrolls

and pictographs to provide a record of information

for ceremonies. Pictured here is a pictorial

notation of one Ojibwe music board.”

Above Quote Courtesy,

Native Indian Home – Tipi

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Kiowa Tipis – Primary Dwellings

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“The Kiowa traditionally used tipis for their primary dwellings.

The tipis were crafted from the hides of bison and

featured vibrant patterns on the outside. The

innovative design allowed the Kiowa people

to stay cool in the hot plains summers and

warm through the harsh winters. A smoke

flap at the top of each tipi made it possible

to build a fire inside with proper ventilation.”

Above Quote Courtesy,

The Hunt for Bison – Buffalo Chase

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Portrait of a Young Chief

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William Penn at the signing

of a treaty with

local Native Americans

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“This iconic painting depicts William Penn at the signing

of a treaty with local Native Americans. The pacifist

Quaker was known for his good relationship with

native tribes, and he worked to establish what

is now present-day Pennsylvania. He

proclaimed that he would not

exploit the Native Americans, though his views

were not accepted by other white settlers.”

Above Quote Courtesy,

 “The Trail of Tears”

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“The Trail of Tears” represents one of the darkest chapters

in U.S. history. The term refers to a series of actions that

forced Native Americans from their lands in the

Southeastern portion of the U.S.

People from the various tribes were forced to march

across the land to new homes spread out all over the

country, and they frequently died from diseases,

starvation and violence.  The Native Americans

fought the  forced  relocation

through a series of legal battles and wars but

ultimately lost out to the U.S. government.

The main goal of the actions against the

tribes was to make more land available

to white settlers while removing the

presence of the Native Americans

from the area to appease the

delicate sensibilities of the settlers.”

Above Quote Courtesy,

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A Change of Clothing . . . Yet an

inner Spiritual Reverence

for Ancient,

Native Culture and Traditions

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“Some photographers set out to capture images

of Native Americans in the 1800s. These images capture

their gradual assimilation into American culture.  The

goal of the U.S. government was to assimilate the

Native Americans, a process they referred to

as  “civilizing.” They were expected to

attend church, speak English and

abandon their cultural

traditions, including their clothing."

Above Quote Courtesy,

Native Name, Hakadah and

later named,

Ohíye S’a; then renamed

Charles Eastman

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“Charles Eastman was a Boston University-educated

physician of English, French and Dakota ancestry. He

worked on reservations providing medical services to

those living there, and he would later go on to

become an activist for Native American

rights.  Eastman was portrayed in the

HBO film Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, and he

even had a crater on Mercury named after him. The

physician is credited with being the first Native

American to write the history of America

from a Native American perspective.”

Above Quote Courtesy,

Susan La Flesche Picotte

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“Dr. Susan La Flesche Picotte is believed to be the first

Native American physician. She was an Omaha Indian who

worked as an activist on behalf of the Omaha tribe.

She also tried to discourage drinking

and improve public

health conditions for the Omaha people.”

Above Quote Courtesy,

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I n   M i n d   a n d   S p i r i t ,

F o r e v e r  . . .

N a t i v e   I n d i a n   C h i e f s !

F i v e  O j i b w e  C h i e f s

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“The Ojibwe, sometimes known as the Chippewa, lived throughout

present-day Canada and the United States, mainly near the

Great Lakes.  The five Ojibwe Chiefs

appear to be dressed for the cold northern winters

they endured living around the lakes.”

Above Quote Courtesy,

I n   B o d y   a n d   S o u l ,

F o r e v e r  . . .

Mothers of Native Indian

Nations and Tribes!

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“Hattie Tom was a young Chiricahua Apache woman

photographed in Omaha around 1862. This image is

part of a series created by photographer Frank A.

Rinehart to capture images of the 36 tribes

represented at the U.S. Indian Congress

of the Trans-Mississippi and

International Exposition in Omaha, Nebraska.”

Above Quote Courtesy,

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“Native American Indians”

Fast Forwarding . . .

Into the Future with the

vibrancy and longevity

of a rich,

cultural heritage for . . .

Many Generations to come!

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Above Images Courtesy,

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Learn more about

throughout the U.S.A.

on the following web pages:

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Courtesy, www.DigitalBlue.com, Russ Cove

C o u r t e s y ,

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C o u r t e s y ,

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NATIONAL MUSEUM of the AMERICAN INDIAN New York

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C o u r t e s y ,

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Reminder:  Don’t forget to learn more at the . . .

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N  A  T  I  V  E    A  M  E  R  I  C  A  N  S

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Learn more at Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia

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See Also:

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The Following is a Courtesy of CNN

Story by Dana Joseph, for CNN

Best places to experience Native American culture

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Courtesy, Robert Alexander/Archive Photos/GETTY IMAGES

 Learn more on the following web page:

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EPACHA Foundation Extends

Sincere Thanks to

All Herein Who Helped Make Its

web page possible!

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If you’ve missed the work of EPACHA in its Phase I duration, please be encouraged to click on the below web links.

Sincerest Thanks are Extended to http://archive.org/web/ for having made possible an archived viewing of

 

EPACHA Foundation’s entire volume of its Phase I web pages:

https://web.archive.org/web/20180321225044/http://www.epacha.org/Pages/Home_Page_BkUp3.aspx

Complete List of EPACHA - Phase I web pages:

https://web.archive.org/web/20180321224129/http://www.epacha.org/Pages/Site_Map_List_of_EPACHAs_Web_Pages.aspx

M A R C H   2 0 1 9   -   U P D A T E D   -   J U L Y  2 0 2 1